Proteomic responses of sea urchin embryos to stressful ultraviolet radiation.

TitleProteomic responses of sea urchin embryos to stressful ultraviolet radiation.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2012
AuthorsAdams NL, Campanale JP, Foltz KR
JournalIntegr Comp Biol
Date Published2012 Nov
KeywordsAnimals, Apoptosis, Cell Division, DNA Damage, Embryo, Nonmammalian, Embryonic Development, Protein Processing, Post-Translational, Protein Transport, Proteome, Proteomics, Sea Urchins, Stress, Physiological, Ultraviolet Rays

Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 290-400 nm) penetrates into seawater and can harm shallow-dwelling and planktonic marine organisms. Studies dating back to the 1930s revealed that echinoids, especially sea urchin embryos, are powerful models for deciphering the effects of UVR on embryonic development and how embryos defend themselves against UV-induced damage. In addition to providing a large number of synchronously developing embryos amenable to cellular, biochemical, molecular, and single-cell analyses, the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, also offers an annotated genome. Together, these aspects allow for the in-depth study of molecular and biochemical signatures of UVR stress. Here, we review the effects of UVR on embryonic development, focusing on the early-cleavage stages, and begin to integrate data regarding single-protein responses with comprehensive proteomic assessments. Proteomic studies reveal changes in levels of post-translational modifications to proteins that respond to UVR, and identify proteins that can then be interrogated as putative targets or components of stress-response pathways. These responsive proteins are distributed among systems upon which targeted studies can now begin to be mapped. Post-transcriptional and translational controls may provide early embryos with a rapid, fine-tuned response to stress during early stages, especially during pre-blastula stages that rely primarily on maternally derived defenses rather than on responses through zygotic gene transcription.

Alternate JournalIntegr. Comp. Biol.
PubMed ID22576820