Development and dynamics of cell polarity at a glance.

TitleDevelopment and dynamics of cell polarity at a glance.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsCampanale JP, Sun TY, Montell DJ
JournalJ Cell Sci
Volume130
Issue7
Pagination1201-1207
Date Published2017 04 01
ISSN1477-9137
KeywordsAnimals, Asymmetric Cell Division, Caenorhabditis elegans, Cell Movement, Cell Polarity, Humans, Multiprotein Complexes, Signal Transduction
Abstract

<p>Cells exhibit morphological and molecular asymmetries that are broadly categorized as cell polarity. The cell polarity established in early embryos prefigures the macroscopic anatomical asymmetries characteristic of adult animals. For example, eggs and early embryos have polarized distributions of RNAs and proteins that generate global anterior/posterior and dorsal/ventral axes. The molecular programs that polarize embryos are subsequently reused in multiple contexts. Epithelial cells require apical/basal polarity to establish their barrier function. Migrating cells polarize in the direction of movement, creating distinct leading and trailing structures. Asymmetrically dividing stem cells partition different molecules between themselves and their daughter cells. Cell polarity can develop , be maintained through rounds of cell division and be dynamically remodeled. In this Cell Science at a Glance review and poster, we describe molecular asymmetries that underlie cell polarity in several cellular contexts. We highlight multiple developmental systems that first establish cell/developmental polarity, and then maintain it. Our poster showcases repeated use of the Par, Scribble and Crumbs polarity complexes, which drive the development of cell polarity in many cell types and organisms. We then briefly discuss the diverse and dynamic changes in cell polarity that occur during cell migration, asymmetric cell division and in planar polarized tissues.</p>

DOI10.1242/jcs.188599
Alternate JournalJ. Cell. Sci.
PubMed ID28365593
PubMed Central IDPMC5399778
Grant ListR01 GM046425 / GM / NIGMS NIH HHS / United States