|Title||BIOLOGICAL ADHESIVES. Adaptive synergy between catechol and lysine promotes wet adhesion by surface salt displacement.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2015|
|Authors||Maier, GP, Rapp, MV, Waite, JH, Israelachvili, JN, Butler, A|
|Date Published||2015 Aug 7|
|Keywords||Adhesiveness, Adhesives, Aluminum Silicates, Catechols, Dihydroxyphenylalanine, Hydrogen-Ion Concentration, Lysine, Molecular Mimicry, Oxidation-Reduction, Proteins, Siderophores, Titanium|
In physiological fluids and seawater, adhesion of synthetic polymers to solid surfaces is severely limited by high salt, pH, and hydration, yet these conditions have not deterred the evolution of effective adhesion by mussels. Mussel foot proteins provide insights about adhesive adaptations: Notably, the abundance and proximity of catecholic Dopa (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) and lysine residues hint at a synergistic interplay in adhesion. Certain siderophores—bacterial iron chelators—consist of paired catechol and lysine functionalities, thereby providing a convenient experimental platform to explore molecular synergies in bioadhesion. These siderophores and synthetic analogs exhibit robust adhesion energies (E(ad) ≥-15 millijoules per square meter) to mica in saline pH 3.5 to 7.5 and resist oxidation. The adjacent catechol-lysine placement provides a "one-two punch," whereby lysine evicts hydrated cations from the mineral surface, allowing catechol binding to underlying oxides.