Samuel Lab Publications Samuel Lab Lab Members Lab Research Publications Links

Representative Publications by Samuel Lab Members


Tan, M.H., Li, Q., Shanmugam,R., Piskol, R., Kohler, J., et al. (2017) Dynamic landscape and regulation of RNA editing in mammals. Nature 550(7675):249-254.

Ma, D, George C.X., Nomburg, J., Pfaller, C.K., Cattaneo, R., and Samuel, C.E. (2017). Upon infection the cellular WD repeat-containing protein 5 localizes to cytoplasmic inclusion bodies and enhances measles virus replication. J. Virol.: in press.


George, C.X., Ramaswami, G., Li, J.B., Samuel, C.E. (2016) Editing of cellular self-RNAs by adenosine deaminase ADAR1 suppresses innate immune stress responses. J Biol Chem. 291:6158-68.

Kainulainen, M., Lau, S., Samuel, C.E., Hornung, V., Weber, F. (2016) NSs virulence factor of Rift Valley Fever Virus engages the F-box proteins FBXW11 and β-TRCP1 to degrade the antiviral protein kinase PKR. J Virol. 90:6140-6147.


George, C. X., Samuel, C. E. (2015) STAT2-dependent induction of RNA adenosine deaminse ADAR1 by type 1 interferon differs between mouse and human cells in the requirement for STAT1. Virology 485: 363-370.

Pfaller, C. K., Mastorakos, G.M., Matchett, W.E., Ma, X., et al. (2015) Measles virus defective interfering RNAs are generated frequently and early in the absence of C protein and can be destabilized by adenosine deaminase actiing on RNA1-like hypermutations. J. Virol. 89: 7735-7747.


Pfaller, C.K., Radeke, M.J., Cattaneo, R., Samuel, C.E. (2014) Measles virus C protein impairs production of defective copyback double-stranded viral RNA and activation of protein kinase R. J. Virol. 88:456-68.

George, C.X., John, L., Samuel, C.E. (2014) An RNA Editor, Adenosine Deaminase Acting on Double-Stranded RNA (ADAR1). J. Interferon Cytokine Res. 34:437-46.

John, L., Samuel, C.E. (2014) Induction of stress granules by interferon and down-regulation by the cellular RNA adenosine deaminase ADAR1. Virology 454-455:299-310.


Okonski, K.M., Samuel, C.E. (2013) Stress Granule Formation Induced by Measles Virus is Protein Kinase PKR-dependent and Impaired by RNA Adenosine Deaminase ADAR1. J. Virol. 87:756-766.


McAllister, C.S., Taghavi, N., Samuel, C.E. (2012) Protein Kinase PKR Amplification of Interferon β Induction Occurs through Initiation Factor eIF-2α-mediated Translational Control. J. Biol. Chem. 287:36384-36392.

Ruggieri A, Dazert E, Metz P, Hofmann S, Bergeest JP, Mazur J, et al. (2012) Dynamic oscillation of translation and stress granule formation mark the cellular response to virus infection. Cell Host Microbe 12:71-85.

Li, Z., Okonski, K. M., and Samuel, C. E. (2012) Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) Suppresses the Induction of Interferon by Measles Virus. J Virol. 86: 3787-3794.

Taghavi, N., and Samuel C. E. (2012) Protein kinase PKR catalytic activity is required for the PKR-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and amplification of interferon beta induction following virus infection. Virology 427: 208-216.


2011. Samuel, C.E. Adenosine Deaminases Acting on RNAs (ADARs) are both Antiviral and Proviral. Virology 411: 180-193.

2011. George, C.X., Gan, Z., Liu, Y., and Samuel, C.E. Adenosine Deaminases Acting on RNA (ADARs), RNA Editing and Interferon Action. J. Interferon & Cytokine Res. 31: 99-117.

2011. Ward, S.V., George, C.X., Welch,M.J., Liou, L-Y, Hahm, B., Lewicki, H, de la Torre, J.C., Samuel, C.E., and Oldstone, M.B. RNA Editing Enzyme Adenosine Deaminase is a Restriction Factor for Controlling Measles Virus Replication that also is Required for Embryogenesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108: 331-336.

2011. Bouxsein, N.F., Leal, C., McAllister, C.S., Ewert, K.K., Li, Y., Samuel, C.E., and Safinya, C.S. Two-dimensional Packing of Short DNA with Non-pairing Overhangs in Cationic Liposome-DNA Complexes: From Onsager Nematics to Columnar Nematics with Finite-length Columns. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133: 7585-7595.

2011. Samuel, C.E. ADARs, Viruses, and Innate Immunity. Curr. Topics Microbiol. & Immunol. 353: In press.

2011. George, C.X., and Samuel, C.E. Host Response to Polyoma Virus Infection is Modulated by RNA Adenosine Deaminse ADAR1 but not by ADAR2. J. Virol.: in press.


2010. McAllister, C.S., Toth, A.M., Zhang, P., Devaux, P., Cattaneo, R., and Samuel, C.E. Mechanisms of Protein Kinase PKR-mediated Amplification of Beta Interferon Induction by C Protein-deficient Measles Virus. J. Virol. 84 : 380-386.

2010. Samuel, C.E. Toward a Structural Basis for Understanding Influenza Virus-Host Cell Interactions. J. Biol. Chem. 285: 28399-28401.

2010. Li, Z., Wolff, K.C., and Samuel, C.E. RNA Adenosine Deaminase ADAR1 Deficiency Leads to Increased Activation of Protein Kinase PKR and Reduced Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Growth following Interferon Treatment. Virology 396: 316-322.

2010. Samuel, C.E. Elucidating Hepatitis C Virus-Host Interactions at the Biochemical Level. J. Biol. Chem. 285: 22723-22724.


2009. Toth, A.M., Li, Z., Cattaneio, R., and Samuel, C.E. RNA-specific adenosine deaminae ADAR1 suppresses measles virus-induced apoptosis and activation of protein kinase PKR. J. Biol. Chem. 284: 29350-29356.

2009. Zhang, P., Langland, J.O., Jacobs, B.L., Samuel, C.E. Protein kinase PKR-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases occurs through mitochondrial adapter IPS-1 and is antagonized by vaccinia virus E3L. J. Virol. 83: 5718-5725.

2009. Wang, Y., and Samuel, C.E. Adenosine deaminase ADAR1 increases gene expression at the translational level by decreasing protein kinase PKR-dependent eIF-2α phosphorylation. J. Mol. Biol. 393: 777-787.

2009. Toth, A.M., Devaux, P., Cattaneo, R. and Samuel, C.E. Protein Kinase PKR Mediates the apoptosis induction and growth restriction phenotypes of C protein-deficient measles virus. J. Virol. 83: 961-968.

2009. McAllister, C.S., Samuel, C.E. Protein kinase PKR enhances the induction of interferon-beta and apoptosis mediated by cytoplasmic RNA sensors. J. Biol. Chem. 284: 1644-1651.

2009. George, C.X., Li, Z., Okonski, K.M., Toth, A. M., Wang, Y., Samuel, C.E. Tipping the balance: antagonism of PKR Kinase and ADAR1 deaminase functions by virus gene products. J. Interferon & Cytokine Res. 29: 477-487.


2008. Zhang, P., and Samuel, C.E. Induction of Protein Kinase PKR-dependent Activation of Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 by Vaccinia Virus Occurs through Adaptor IPS-1 Signaling. J. Biol. Chem. 283: 34580-34587.

2008. Zhang, P., Jacobs, B.L., and Samuel, C.E. Loss of Protein Kinase PKR Expression in Human HeLa Cells Complements the Vaccinia Virus E3L Deletion Mutant Phenotype by Restoration of Viral Protein Synthesis. J. Virol. 82: 840-848.

2008. Simon, R., and Samuel, C.E. Interleukin-1β Secretion is Activated Comparably by FliC and FljB Flagellins but Differentially by Wild-Type and DNA Adenine Methylase-deficient Salmonella. J. Interferon & Cytokine Res. 28: 661-666.

2008. George, C.X., Das, S., and Samuel, C.E. Organization of the Mouse RNA-specific Adenosine Deaminase Adar1 Gene 5'-Region and Demonstration of STAT1-independent, STAT2-dependent Transcriptional Activation by Interferon. Virology 380: 338-343.


2007. Simon, R., Heithoff, D.M., Mahan, M.J., and Samuel, C.E. Comparison of tissue-selective proinflammatory gene induction in mice infected with wild-type, DNA adenine methylase-deficient, and flagellin-deficient Salmonella enterica. Infect. & Immun. 72: 5627-5639.

2007. Zhang, P., and Samuel, C.E. Protein Kinase PKR Plays a Stimulus- and Virus-dependent Role in Apoptotic Death and Virus Multiplication in Human Cells. J. Virol. 81: 8192-8200.

2007. Samuel, C.E. Innate Immunity Minireview Series: Making Biochemical Sense of Nucleic Acid Sensors that Trigger Antiviral Innate Immunity. J. Biol. Chem. 282: 15313-15314.

2007. Bouxsein, N.F*., McAllister, C.S*., Ewert, K., Samuel, C.E+. and Safinya, C.R+. Structure and Gene Silencing Activities of Monovalent and Pentavalent Cationic Lipid Vectors Complexed with siRNA. *, contributed equally and co-first authorship; +, co-corresponding authors. Biochemistry 46: 4785-4792.

2007. Simon, R., and Samuel, C.E. Activation of NF-κB-dependent Gene Expression by Salmonella Flagellins FliC and FljB. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 355: 280-285.

2007. Samuel, C.E. Interferons, Interferon Receptors, Signal Transducer and Transcriptional Activators, and Interferon Regulatory Factors. J. Biol. Chem. 282: 20045-20046.


2006. Das, S., Ward, S.V., Tacke, R.S., Suske, G., and Samuel, C.E. Activation of the RNA-dependent Protein Kinase PKR Promoter in the Absence of Interferon is Dependent upon Sp Proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 281: 3244-3253.

2006. Toth, A.M., Zhang, P., Das, S., George, C.X., and Samuel, C.E. Interferon Action and the Double-stranded RNA-dependent Enzymes ADAR1 Deaminase and PKR Kinase. Prog. Nucleic Acids Res. & Mol. Biol. 81: 369-434.

2006. Samuel, C.E. Virus-Host Interactions - Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis C Virus and Influenza Virus. J. Biol. Chem. 281: 8305-8307.

2006. Safinya, C.R., Ewert, K., Ahmad, A., Evans, H.M., Raviv, U., Needleman, D.J., Lin, A.J., Slack, N.L., George, C., and Samuel, C.E. Cationic Liposome-DNA Complexes: From Liquid Crystal Science to Gene Delivery Applications. Phil. Trans. Royal Society A. 364: 2573-2596.

2006. Simon, R., and Samuel, C.E. Innate Interferon Response in Macrophage and Epithelial Cells Infected with Wild-type compared to DNA Adenine Methylase and Flagellin Mutant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium. J. Interferon & Cytokine Res. 27: 317-327.


2005. George, C.X., Wagner, M.V., and Samuel, C.E. Expression of Interferon-inducible RNA Deaminase ADAR1 during Pathogen Infection and Mouse Embryo Development Involves Tissue Selective Promoter Utilization and Alternative Splicing. J. Biol. Chem. 280: 15020-15028.

2005. Ahmad, A., Evans, H.M., Kai Ewert K., George, C. X., Samuel, C.E., and Safinya, C.R. New Multivalent Lipids Reveal Bell-Curve for Transfection Efficiency versus Membrane Charge Density by Lamellar Cationic Liposome-DNA Complexes. J. Gene Med. 7: 739-748.


2004. Samuel, C.E. Knockdown by RNAi - proceed with caution. Nature Biotechnol. 22: 280-282.

2004. Das, S., Ward, S.V., Markle, D., and Samuel, C.E. DNA Damage Binding Proteins and hnRNP A1 Function as Constitutive KCS Element Components of the Interferon-inducible RNA-dependent PKR Kinase Promoter. J. Biol. Chem. 279: 7313-7321.

2004. Ewert, K., Slack, N.L., Ahmad, A., Evans, H., Lin, A.J., Samuel, C.E. and Safinya, C.S. Cationic Lipid-DNA Complexes for Gene Therapy: Understanding the Relationship between Complex Structures and Gene Delivery Pathways at the Molecular Level. Curr. Med. Chem. 11: 133-149


2003. Samuel, C.E. RNA Editing. J. Biol. Chem. 278:1389-1390.

2003. Ward, S.V., and Samuel, C.E. The PKR Kinase Promoter Binds both Sp1 and Sp3, but only Sp3 Functions as part of the Interferon-inducible Complex with ISGF-3 Proteins. Virology 313: 553-566.

2003. Lin, A.J., Slack, N.L., Ahmad, A., George, C.X., Samuel, C.E. and Safinya, C.S. Three-dimensional Imaging of Lipid Gene-carriers: Membrane Charge Density Controls Universal Transfection Behavior in Lamellar Cationic Liposome-DNA Complexes. Biophysical J. 84: 1-10.

2003. Markle, D., Das, S., Ward, S.V., and Samuel, C.E. Functional Analysis of the KCS-like Element of the Interferon-inducible RNA-specific Adenosine Deaminase ADAR1 Promoter. Gene 304: 143-149.


2002. Samuel, C.E. Host genetic variability and West Nile virus susceptibility. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 99:11555-11557

2002. Ward S.V., Samuel C.E. Regulation of the interferon-inducible PKR kinase gene: the KCS element is a constitutive promoter element that functions in concert with the interferon-stimulated response element. Virology 296:136-146.

2002. Ward, S.V., Markle, D., Das, S., and Samuel, C.E. The Promoter Proximal KCS Element of the PKR Kinase Promoter Enhances Transcription Irrespective of Orientation and Position Relative to the ISRE Element and is Functionally Distinct from the KCS-like Element of the ADAR Deaminase Promoter. J. Interferon & Cytokine Res. 22: 891-898.

2002. Campo, P.A., Das, S., Hsiang, C-H., Bui, T., Samuel, C.E., and Straus, D. Translational Regulation of Cyclin D1 by 15-deoxy-D12,14-Prostaglandin J2. Cell Growth & Differentiation 13: 409-420.

2002. Shtrichman, R., Heithoff, D.M., Mahan, M.J., and Samuel, C.E. Tissue Selectivity of Interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) Expression in Mice Infected with Dam+ versus Dam- Salmonella. Infection & Immunity 70: 5579-5588


2001. Knipe, D.M., Samuel, C.E., and Palese, P. Virus-Host Cell Interactions. Chapter 7, In Fields Virology, 4th Edition, pp.133-170.

2001. Shtrichman, R., and Samuel, C.E. The Role of Gamma Interferon in Antimicrobial Immunity. Cur. Op. Microbiol. 4: 251-259.

2001. Iwamura, T., Yoneyama, M., Koizumi, N., Okabe, Y., Namiki, H., Samuel, C.E., and Fujita, T. PACT, a double-stranded RNA binding protein acts as a positive regulator for type I interferon gene induction by Newcastle disease virus. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 282: 515-523.

2001. Samuel, C.E. Antiviral Actions of Interferons. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 14: 778-809.

2001. Liu, Y., Wolff, K., Jacobs, B.L., and Samuel, C.E. Vaccinia Virus E3L Interferon Resistance Protein Inhibits the Interferon-induced Adenosine Deaminase A-to-I Editing Activity. Virology 289: 378-387


2000. Lin, A.J., Slack, N.L., Ahmad, A., Koltover, I., George, C., Samuel, C.E. and Safinya, C.S. Structure and Structure-Function Studies of Lipid-Plasmid DNA complexes. J. Drug Target. 8: 13-27.

2000. Tanaka, H., and Samuel, C.E. Mouse Interferon-inducible RNA-dependent Protein Kinase Pkr Gene: Cloning and Sequence of the 5'-Flanking Region and Functional Identification of the Minimal Inducible Promoter. Gene 246: 373-382

2000. Weier, H-UG, George, C.X., Lersch, R.A., Breitweser, S., Cheng, J-F., and Samuel, C.E. Assignment of RNA-specific Adenosine Deaminase (Adar1) Gene to Mouse Chromosome 3F2 by in situ Hybridization. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 89: 214-215

2000. Liu, Y., Lei, M., and Samuel, C.E. Chimeric dsRNA-specific Adenosine Deaminase ADAR1 Proteins Reveal Functional Selectivity of dsRNA-binding Domains from ADAR1 and the Protein Kinase PKR. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 97: 12541-12546.

2000. Kawakubo, K., and Samuel, C.E. Human RNA-specific Adenosine Deaminase (ADAR1) Gene Specifies Transcripts that Initiate from a Constitutively Active Alternative Promoter. Gene 258: 165-172.


1999. Kuhen, K., and Samuel, C.E. Mechanism of Interferon Action. Functional Characterization of Positive and Negative Regulatory Domains that Modulate Transcription of the Human RNA-dependent Protein Kinase Pkr Promoter. Virology 254: 182-195.

1999. Liu, Y., and Samuel, C.E. Editing of Glutamate Receptor B pre-mRNA by Splice-site Variants of interferon-inducible Adenosine Deaminase ADAR1. J. Biol. Chem. 274: 5070-5077.

1999. George, C.X., and Samuel, C.E. Characterization of the 5'Flanking Region of Human RNA-specific Adenosine Deaminase ADAR1 Gene and Identification of an Interferon-inducible ADAR1 Promoter. Gene 229: 203-213.

1999 George, C.X., and Samuel, C.E. Human RNA-specific Adenosine Deaminase Adar1 Transcripts Possess Alternative Exon 1 Structures that Initiate from Different Promoters, one Constitutively Active and the other Interferon-inducible. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 96: 4621-4626.

1999 Liu, Y. Emeson, R.B., and Samuel, C.E. Serotonin 2C Receptor Pre-mRNA Editing in Rat Brain and In Vitro by Splice-site Variants of the Interferon-inducible dsRNA-specific Adenosine Deaminase ADAR1.J. Biol. Chem. 274: 18351-18358.

1999. Kawakubo, K., Kuhen, K.L., Vessey, J.W., George, C.X., and Samuel, C.E. Alternative Splice Variants of the Human PKR Protein Kinase Possessing Different 5'-Untranslated Regions: Expression in Untreated and Interferon-treated Cells and Translational Activity. Virology 264: 106-114.


1998. Samuel, C.E. Reoviruses and the Interferon System. Curr. Topics Microbiol. Immunol. 233: 125-145.

1998. Bevilacqua, P.C., George, C.X., Samuel, C.E., and Cech, T.R. Binding of the Protein Kinase PKR to RNAs with Secondary Structure Defects: Role of the Tandem A-G Mismatch and Noncontiguous Helixes. Biochemistry: 37: 6303-6316.

1998. Lei, M., Liu, Y., and Samuel, C.E. Mechanism of Interferon Action. Adenovirus VAI RNA antagonizes the RNA-Editing Activity of the ADAR Adenosine Deaminase. Virology 245: 188-196.

1998. Kuhen, K.L., Vessey, J.W., and Samuel, C.E. Mechanism of Interferon Action. Identification of Essential Positions within the Novel 15-nucleotide KCS Element Required for Transcriptional Activation of the RNA-dependent Protein Kinase Pkr Gene. J. Virol. 72: 9934-9939.

1998. Samuel, C.E. Protein-Nucleic Acid Interactions and the Cellular Responses to Interferon. Methods J. 15: 161-165.

1998. Liu, Y., Herbert, A., Rich, A., and Samuel, C.E. Double-stranded RNA Adenosine Deaminase: Nucleic Acid Binding Properties. Methods J. 15: 199-205.


1997. Benkirane, M., Chun, R.F., Smith, S.M., Samuel, C.E., Gatignol, A., and Jeang, K-T. Oncogenic potential of TAR RNA-binding protein TRBP and its regulatory interaction with RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR. EMBO Journal 16: 611-624.

1997. Kuhen, K.L., and Samuel, C.E. Mechanism of Interferon Action. Isolation of the Interferon-inducible RNA-dependent Protein Kinase Pkr Promoter and Identification of a Novel DNA Delement in the 5'-Flanking Region of Human and Mouse Pkr Genes. Virology 227: 119-130.

1997. Liu, Y., George, C.X., Patterson, J.B., and Samuel, C.E. Mechanism of Interferon Action. Functionally Distinct dsRNA-binding Domains Associated with Alternative Splice-site Variants of the Interferon-inducible Double-stranded RNA-specific Adenosine Deaminase. J. Biol. Chem. 272: 4419-4428.

1997. Bass, B.L., Nishikura, K., Keller, W., Seeburg, P.H., Emeson, R.B., O'Connell, M.A., Samuel, C.E., and Herbert, A. A Standardized Nomenclature for Adenosine Deaminases that act on RNA. RNA 3: 947-949.

1997. Rende-Fournier, R., Ortega, L.G., George, C.X., and Samuel, C.E. Interaction of the Human Protein Kinase PKR with the Mouse PKR Homolog occurs via the Amino-terminal Region of PKR and does not inactivate Autophosphorylation Activity of Mouse PKR. Virology 238: 410-423.

1997. Samuel, C.E., Kuhen, K.L., George, C.X., Ortega, L., Rende-Fournier, R., and Tanaka, H. The PKR Protein Kinase - an Interferon-inducible Regulator of Cell Growth and Differentiation. Internat. J. Hematol. 65: 227-237.


1996. Ortega, L.G., McCotter, M., Henry, G., McCormack, S.J., Thomis, D.C., and Samuel, C.E. Mechanism of interferon action. Biochemical and genetic evidence for the intermolecular association of the RNA-dependent protein kinase from human cells. Virology 215: 31-39.

1996. Liu, Y., and Samuel, C. E. Mechanism of interferon action. Functionally distinct RNA-binding and catalytic domains in the interferon-inducible double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase. J. Virol. 70: 1961-1968.

1996. Kuhen, K.L., Shen, X., and Samuel, C.E. Mechanism of Interferon Action. Sequence of the Human Interferon-inducible RNA-dependent Protein Kinase (PKR) Deduced from Genomic Clones. Gene 178: 191-193.

1996. George, C.X., McCormack, S.J., Thomis, D.C., Svahn, G., and Samuel, C.E. Heparin-mediated activation of PKR, the interferon-induced RNA-dependent protein kinase. Virology 221: 180-188.

1996. Kuhen, K.L., Shen, X., Carlisle, E.R., Richardson, A.L., Weier, H-U.G., Tanaka, H., and Samuel, C.E. Structural Organization of the Human Gene Encoding an Interferon-inducible RNA-dependent Protein Kinase (PKR) and Differences from its Mouse Homolog. Genomics 35: 197-201.


1995. McCormack, S.J., and Samuel, C.E. Mechanism of Interferon Action. RNA-binding Activity of Full-length and R-Domain Forms of the RNA-dependent Protein Kinase (PKR): Determination of the KD Values for VAI and TAR RNAs. Virology 206: 511-519.

1995. Thomis, D. C., and Samuel, C. E. Mechanism of interferon action. Characterization of the intermolecular autophosphorylation of PKR, the interferon-induced, RNA-dependent protein kinase. J. Virol. 69: 5195-5198.

1995. Patterson, J.B., Thomis, D.C., Hans, S.L., and Samuel, C.E. Mechanism of interferon action. Double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase from human cells is inducible by alpha and gamma interferons. Virology 210: 508-511.

1995. McMillan, N.A.J., Chun, R. F. , Siderovski, D. P., Galabru, J., Toone, W.M., Thomis, D.C., Samuel, C.E., Mak, T.W., Hovanessian, A.G., Jeang, K-T, and Williams, B.R.G. HIV-1 Tat directly interacts with the interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR. Virology 213: 413-424.

1995. Weier, H-U.G., George, C.X., Greulich, K.M., and Samuel, C.E. The interferon-inducible, double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase gene (DSRAD) maps to human chromosome 1q21.1-21.2. Genomics 30: 372-375.

1995. Patterson, J.B., and Samuel, C.E. Expression and regulation by interferon of a double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase from human cells: evidence for two forms of the deaminase. Mol. Cell. Biol. 15: 5376-5388.


1994. McCormack, S.J., Ortega, L.G., Doohan, J.P., and Samuel, C.E. Mechanism of Interferon Action. Motif I of the Interferon-induced, RNA-dependent Protein Kinase (PKR) is Sufficient to Mediate RNA Binding Activity. Virology 198: 92-99.

1994. Tanaka, H., and Samuel, C.E. Mechanism of Interferon Action. Structure of the Gene Encoding Mouse PKR, the Interferon-inducible RNA-dependent Protein Kinase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 91: 7995-7999.


1993. Samuel, C.E. The eIF-2a Protein Kinases-Regulators of Translation in Eukaryotes from Yeasts to Humans. J. Biol. Chem. 268: 7603-7606.

1993. Belli, B.A., and Samuel, C.E. Biosynthesis of Reovirus-specified Polypeptides. Identification of Regions of the Bicistronic Reovirus s1 mRNA that affect the Efficiency of Translation in Animal Cells. Virology 193: 16-27.

1993. Doohan, J.P., and Samuel, C.E. Biosynthesis of Reovirus-specified Polypeptides. Analysis of Ribosome Pausing during Translation of Reovirus S1 and S4 mRNAs in Virus-infected and Vector-transfected Cells. J. Biol. Chem. 268: 18313-18320.

1993. Thomis, D.C., and Samuel, C.E. Mechanism of Interferon Action. The Interferon-induced, RNA-dependent Protein Kinase PKR: Evidence for Intermolecular Autophosphorylation and Autoactivation. J. Virol. 67: 7695-7700.


1992. Doohan, J.P., and Samuel, C.E. Biosynthesis of Reovirus-specified Polypeptides. Ribosome Pausing during the Translation of Reovirus S1 mRNA. Virology 186: 409-425.

1992. Thomis, D.C., Doohan, J.P., and Samuel, C.E. Mechanism of Interferon Action. cDNA Structure, Expression and Regulation of the Interferon-induced, RNA-dependent P1/eIF-2a Protein Kinase from Human Cells. Virology 188: 33-46.

1992. McCormack, S.J., Thomis, D.C., and Samuel, C.E. Mechanism of Interferon Action. Identification of a RNA-Binding Domain within the N-terminal Region of the Human RNA-dependent P1/eIF-2a Protein Kinase. Virology 188: 47-56.

1992. Miller, J.E., and Samuel, C.E. Proteolytic Cleavage of the Reovirus Sigma 3 Protein Results in Enhanced Double-stranded RNA-binding Activity: Identification of a Repeated Basic Amino Acid Motif within the C-terminal Binding Region. J. Virol. 66: 5347-5356.

1992. Thomis, D.C., and Samuel, C.E. Mechanism of Interferon Action: Autoregulation of RNA-dependent P1/eIF-2a Protein Kinase (PKR) Expression in Transfected Mammalian cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89: 10837-10841.


1991. Samuel, C.E. Antiviral Actions of Interferon. Interferon-regulated Cellular Proteins and their Surprisingly Selective Antiviral Activities. Virology 183: 1-11.

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