RESET-PKD: A pilot trial on short-term ketogenic interventions in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease
Simon Oehm, Konstantin Steinke, Johannes Schmidt, Sita Arjune, Polina Todorova, Christoph Lindemann, Fabian Wöstmann, Franziska Meyer, Florian Siedek, Thomas Weimbs, Roman-Ulrich Müller, Franziska Grundmann
Ketogenic dietary interventions (KDI) have been shown to be effective in animal models of polycystic kidney disease, but data from clinical trials are lacking.
Ten ADPKD patients with rapid disease progression were enrolled at visit V1 and initially maintained a carbohydrate (CHO)-rich diet. At V2, patients entered one of the two KDI arms: a 3-day water fast (WF) or a 14-day ketogenic diet (KD). At V3, they resumed their normal diet for 3 to 6 weeks until V4. At each visit, MRI kidney and liver volumetry was performed. Ketone bodies were evaluated to assess metabolic efficacy and questionnaires were used to determine feasibility.
All participants (KD n = 5, WF n = 5; age 39.8 ± 11.6 years; eGFR 82 ± 23.5 ml/min; total kidney volume (TKV) 2224 ± 1156 ml) were classified as Mayo Class 1C to 1E. Acetone levels in breath and BHB blood levels increased in both study arms (V1 to V2 average acetone: 2.7±1.2 ppm, V2 to V3: 22.8±11.9 ppm, p = 0.0006; V1 to V2 average BHB: 0.22±0.08 mmol/l, V2 to V3: 1.88±0.93 mmol/l, p = 0.0008). 9/10 patients reached a ketogenic state and 9/10 evaluated KDIs as feasible. TKV did not change during this trial. However, we found a significant impact on total liver volume (ΔTLV V2 to V3: -7.7%, p = 0.01), mediated by changes in its non-cystic fraction.
RESET-PKD demonstrates that short-term KDIs potently induce ketogenesis and are feasible for ADPKD patients in daily life. While TLV quickly changed upon the onset of ketogenesis, changes in TKV may require longer-term interventions.