|Mono-ubiquitination of syntaxin 3 leads to retrieval from the basolateral plasma membrane and facilitates cargo recruitment to exosomes.
|Year of Publication
|Giovannone, AJ, Reales, E, Bhattaram, P, Fraile-Ramos, A, Weimbs, T
|Mol Biol Cell
Syntaxin 3 (Stx3), a SNARE protein located and functioning at the apical plasma membrane of epithelial cells, is required for epithelial polarity. A fraction of Stx3 is localized to late endosomes/lysosomes though how it traffics there and its function in these organelles is unknown. Here we report that Stx3 undergoes mono-ubiquitination in a conserved polybasic domain. Stx3 present at the basolateral - but not the apical - plasma membrane is rapidly endocytosed, targeted to endosomes, internalized into intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) and excreted in exosomes. A non-ubiquitinatable mutant of Stx3 (Stx3-5R) fails to enter this pathway and leads to the inability of the apical exosomal cargo protein GPRC5B to enter the ILV/exosomal pathway. This suggests that ubiquitination of Stx3 leads to removal from the basolateral membrane to achieve apical polarity, that Stx3 plays a role in the recruitment of cargo to exosomes, and that the Stx3-5R mutant acts as a dominant-negative inhibitor. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) acquires its membrane in an intracellular compartment and we show that Stx3-5R strongly reduces the number of excreted infectious viral particles. Altogether these results suggest that Stx3 functions in the transport of specific proteins to apical exosomes and that HCMV exploit this pathway for virion excretion.
|Mol. Biol. Cell